The Causes of Forced Displacements: Necropolitics versus Human Rights

Juan Hernández Zubizarreta

The so-called refugee crisis is neither spontaneous nor circumstantial, since it is linked to multiple structural reasons that sustain the economic and social model of domination, which implies addressing it from its root or the human tragedies that provoke forced displacement. they are going to stop. There are millions of people and peoples who emigrate due to weather conditions and the model and projects of capitalist and heteropatriarchal development.

Neocolonialism is the updated form of domination of enriched countries over the countries of the Global South. It should be borne in mind that the myths against refugees and migrants on which xenophobia and racism are based, in part, are based on false statements such as the ones that follow: “they take away our work”, “they are criminals and terrorists “,” take advantage of our social assistance “,” invade us “, etc. They are premises that do not take into account, among many other issues, the current forms of neocolonialism.

The Global Financial Integrity (GFI) 1 / has calculated that all financial resources that are transferred between rich countries and impoverished countries every year including development cooperation funds, foreign investment, trade flows, non-financial transfers such as debt cancellation, unilateral transfers such as workers’ remittances, and undeclared capital flight, show us an incontestable equation, the flow of money from rich countries to poor countries is infinitely less than that established in the opposite direction . That is, impoverished countries give money to rich countries, according to data from 2012, the countries of the Global South sent 2 billion dollars more to the rest of the world than they received. From 1980 to 2012 the GFI has calculated that the impoverished countries lost a total of 13.4 billion dollars through the flight of capital. The 48 countries in sub-Saharan Africa received $ 161.6 billion from abroad in 2015 and sent 203,000 million out of their borders through the repatriation of profits from transnational corporations or illegal evasion of money outside the continent. 2 /

Forced displacements have a direct relationship with the data stated. Can the economic asymmetry so express and so evident be answered by borders that divide “civilization” from “barbarism”? Who is who? Who owes whom?

On the other hand, capitalism is structurally very violent and aims to monopolize “a lot” in a very “short time”. People become a commodity, and therefore, susceptible to being discarded, which implies placing the commodification of life at the top of the normative hierarchy.

There is also a great accumulation of wealth in very few hands, compared to a large collection of poverty in many others. Therefore, the idea of ​​stability is linked to the security needed by the world’s resources to reach the North, but not with the displacement of poor migrants. This is the force idea that “justifies” the forced displacements and that affects the central core of the problem, there are millions of people fleeing the misery generated by an objectively unjust economic and political system.

Exploitation

The classic mechanism of capital to appropriate surplus value continues to be the exploitation of labor that occurs in the formal and informal markets, and maintains the sexual division of labor, global care chains and reproductive work. Free for women and that, now, to a large extent, immigrant women are executing. Unemployment, loss of purchasing power of wages, pensions, etc. they are permanent effects of the neoliberal model that places precariousness at the center of labor relations. In addition, this exploitation is accompanied by emerging phenomena, such as the worker or poor worker, a phenomenon that is common in Latin America and Africa, but less known in Europe.

The global index of social rights of the International Trade Union Confederation of 2016 3 /, ratifies the disastrous situation by which the rights of workers pass. Let’s see some data: with respect to fundamental rights at work, the Middle East and North Africa region remains the worst in the world. In the Gulf countries, the vast majority of workers, specifically migrants, are excluded from the basic protections provided by labor legislation, says the report.

According to the index, workers are excluded from the right to freedom of association in 58% of the countries and workers can not exercise the right to strike in 68% of them. A mere example, 3,000 workers have been laid off in Indonesia a few weeks ago by the US company Freeport-McMoRan at the Grasberg copper-gold mine in West Papua; the reason, exercise your right to strike.

In the European Union more than 122.3 million people, 24.4% of the population are at risk of poverty and internal migrations between European countries are based on social and labor dumping. That is, low working conditions become a fundamental element of competitiveness between companies and countries of the European continent. For example, the latest report of Labor Behin The Label alerts the working conditions of footwear workers in Albania, Bosnia, Macedonia, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. More than 120,000 people are affected by very precarious working conditions, where low wages, sexual discrimination, unpaid overtime and health risks are part of everyday work relationships. The aforementioned report analyzes, in relation to the Minimum Interprofessional Salary (SMI), that “an Albanian person charges a fifth part of the German SMI: barely 0.80 euros per hour worked. According to the research, one in three workers in this sector charges less than 121 euros per month. This figure rises to 163 euros in Macedonia, although footwear employees barely reach 145 euros. The situation in Bosnia (0.92 euros per hour worked), Romania (0.88), Poland (1.81) and Slovenia (2.01) is not much better either “.

This practice is widespread in sectors such as construction, transport, meat industry, social assistance and domestic work. And all this is guaranteed within the European Union, at least, by the community directive on the movement of workers made within the framework of the provision of services, which legalizes the exploitation of internal migrations among EU workers. . Their rights are subordinated to the freedom of companies to provide services.

The multinational IKEA subcontracts transport companies for the distribution of their products throughout Europe and these companies are located in most cases in Eastern countries, which, in turn, hire the services of workers from Romania, Moldova, Bulgaria, etc. These workers eat, sleep and live in trucks for wages close to 150 euros per month.

On the other hand, the Association of Domestic Workers of Bizkaia of the Spanish State has confirmed that of the total Domestic workers, “41.77% are foreign non-EU, 30.49% native, 26.61% people with dual nationality and 2.13% foreign community. Among domestic workers, the percentage of non-EU foreigners is 72.02%. Seven out of every 10 inmates (71.56%) work more than the 60 hours per week stipulated by the law and almost one third (29.36%) do not have any daily rest, understood as the freedom to leave the house to devote to your own affairs. 21.56% do not enjoy any weekly rest 4 /. “The slavery of the 21st century is also institutionalized in internal migrations within the EU.

Migrants are very functional to the capitalist system, becoming one of their golden rules, since it is formal or informal labor, cheap and precarious, that formalizes the downward career of the rights of working people. In addition, it is a symbol that expresses and deepens the war between the poor.

Accumulation due to dispossession and expulsion

Capitalism uses expulsion as a way to maintain the rate of profit of capital. It is what Harvey calls dispossession or accumulation by dispossession. Transnational corporations usurp natural resources and land as an object of business and commodification, is another way to obtain surplus value and maintain capital accumulation. 5 / People and people are expelled from their homes and their lands to generate profits in agro-industry, mining, oil, power, tourism, etc. The acquisition of large-scale land by transnational corporations destroys local economies and redefines vast tracts of land as places for extraction and business, resulting in denationalized spaces that expel their inhabitants.

Achille Mbembe 7 / considers that “the extraction and plundering of natural resources by war machines goes hand in hand with brutal attempts to immobilize and neutralize entire categories of people or, paradoxically, free them to force them to spread over large areas that exceed limits of a territorial State “.

This reality does not affect men and women equally. Most of them do not have legal ownership of the land and although they are those who work, are often excluded from the decision-making spaces and financial compensation, if any, obtained by the compensation received for the expulsions of their lands 8 /. In addition, the expulsion provokes the rupture with their ways of life and the displacement truncates the knowledge on the land and the territory. As Vandana Shiva states, “there are 800 million hungry people for two reasons: the first is that the food producers have been expelled from the land, the small producers, who were the most productive. I see the farmers where rice grows in India, fields full of rice, that are starving because they bought the seeds, they bought the chemicals and the prices have not stopped rising. The price at which the farmer buys and the price at which the farmer sells is very unequal. The system is making half of the world’s hungry farmers. On the other hand, the economic system has expelled more and more people and the excluded people do not have food or food. It is a combination of a system that is destroying food production, destroying farmers and destroying our economic role in society “9 /.

The colonial root of European policies promotes extractivism and the accumulation of land, and also promotes, on European soil, the commodification of life that leads to expulsion from the labor market, poverty and social exclusion, evictions and energy poverty. The expulsion by dispossession also has a European face; It is a global corporate logic that expands across the planet with different intensities and effects.

People flee, move, and move within their states, between states and continents, because corporate logic, the commodification of life requires displacements and expulsions, and that forms new forms of slavery (for example in Libya and plantations) of Mexico), of child labor in value chains, trafficking in persons and a long list of subjects without rights.

People move against their will and some arrive in our countries looking for a place to live. I wish the migrations were free movements, but the truth is that only an exception of people can travel in freedom.

The deterioration of the environment is causing forced displacement due to the absence of cultivation land, drinking water, droughts and floods, the intrusion of salt water and the consequent destruction of the habitual way of life when sea level rise, due to the destruction of homes by eroding the sea the coastal belt, rivers and ocean areas “moribund” for lack of oxygen produced by the dumping of chemical fertilizers, empty and dead land, without air, without water, etc. all generated by climate change.

The International Organization of Migration notes that in the last thirty years the number of floods and droughts has tripled worldwide, generating more population displacements than all armed conflicts together. Norman Myers, a professor at the University of Oxford, predicts that “when global warming gains strength, there could be up to 200 million people [displaced] by alterations in monsoon systems and other rainy systems, by droughts of unusual severity and duration, as well as the rise in sea level and the flooding of the coastlines “. Of the 50 countries most affected by climate change, 36 are in Africa.

The capitalist economic model is generating millions of people who have to flee their homes and lands because of the physical impossibility of subsisting. They are poor people and have nowhere to go. Climate change affects women especially because, in general, it is they who are responsible for cultivating the land. According to data from the United Nations (2008), women and children are 14 times more likely to die during an emergency or disaster than men.

That is to say, we find people and people suffering forced displacements that are sometimes of a temporary nature and caused by earthquakes, floods, cyclones, etc .; those who emigrate because environmental deterioration destroys their daily life and those displaced and displaced by the total destruction of their “traditional habitat” by the progressive degradation of natural resources.

However, in relation to people displaced by causes generated by climate change, there is a risk of diluting responsibility for them, – “they are climate problems” – that is why it is very clear that it is very difficult to separate the different causes – wars, climate change, extractivist and agro-industrial development model, practices of transnational corporations and accomplices governments, land grabbing, food speculation, etc. – that cause environmental displacements. Climatic modifications are not alien to a capitalism that puts extreme pressure on ecosystems, water, land and the appropriation of natural resources, energy, minerals … which causes irreparable damage to people.

Climate change is also linked to security and the armies and not to people. Priority is given to military bases, areas of high economic activity and maritime routes, but as Buxton says 10 /, “There is little talk of the need to protect vulnerable people and there is no talk of climate justice or restructuring our economy to prevent climate change. ”

Necropolitics

It is the third way decided by the capitalist model, which no longer only exploits and expels, but also lets people die. As Achille Mbembe states, “de facto leaders exercise their authority through the use of violence and arrogate to themselves the right to decide on the life of the governed.” Violence is revealed as an end in itself and is used to discern who is important and who is not, who is easily replaceable and who is not.

In the Mediterranean people are being abandoned and in the Sahara desert, too. We can not believe that the military and border control systems do not detect the ships or vessels that sail clandestinely. And that is called necropolítica, let die for lack of attention to those who are hungry, or for lack of relief to those who drown in the sea. We think that in the Mediterranean, true crimes against humanity are being coined. It is abandoned to those fleeing the war in territories supposedly of peace such as the Mediterranean, and that is very close to a new typification of what we could call “crimes of peace”.

The supposed lack of coordination between the Italian and Maltese Coast Guard cost the lives of 268 people – including 60 children – and the blockade of immigrants on the high seas by the Spanish Civil Guard and their return to Morocco caused 388 (122 minors , from September 2015 to December 2016) dead and missing, which constitute practices of necropolítica. And that the agents of the US Border Patrol destroy the carafes of water that solidarity people leave in the Arizona desert – and that generates migrants dying of thirst – that is, also, necropolítica 11 /.

It is also necropolitical that a total of 44 migrants died of thirst in the middle of the Sahara desert when they were transported from Niger to Libya 12 /; that 10,000 children have disappeared while crossing European borders according to the police intelligence agency Europol; that seven women will drown in the Southern Border, on August 31 of this year, in a hot return; that fifteen Syrian refugees died of cold when they tried to enter Lebanon at the end of January 2018 and that on this same date, the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) confirms that there are immigrants dying of cold in Europe. 13 / And the killings on Tarajal beach in the Southern Border are also necropolitical, where fourteen people died on February 6, 2014, in border waters between rubber balls and smoke boats of the Spanish Civil Guard. Dramatic facts that have recently been sent to the dungeons of impunity by the magistrate’s order of the Court of First Instance and instruction number 6 that decrees the dismissal of the case and the file of the facts of Tarajal.

And the necropolitics continues. Ninety people have died off the coast of Libya – on January 2, 2018 – after overturning the ship in which they were sailing; Two days later there was the biggest migration tragedy in the southern border with the disappearance of 47 people off the coast of Ceuta and “on November 4 (2017) a boat was located with 319 Eritrean migrants 27 miles from the city Libya of Al Kjums (Homs). A higher number of women traveled in the lower hold of the ship than usual. 69 women Almost all of them were ill, almost all of them were traveling alone, almost all of them had been raped. “14 /

And what about the statements of the head of the European border agency Frontex, Fabricce Legerri, who in February 2017 declared that the rescues of the NGOs embolden the traffickers? And of the Frontex report published at the end of 2016 that accused refugee solidarity organizations of working together with trafficking networks? And of the declarations of the leader of the parliamentary group of the European Popular Party, Manfred Webwer, in favor of a “final solution for the question of the refugees” expression with Nazi reminiscences? And of the words of the current Minister of the Interior of Spain, Juan Zoido, who affirmed that it is not our responsibility to decide to flee their countries and that NGOs collaborate with networks of illegal trafficking of people? And how to assess that the Italian Prosecutor’s Office of Catania accused the organizations that rescue people in the Mediterranean from links with networks of illegal trafficking in persons? And the attacks of the Libyan coastguards trained by the EU to the solidarity ships in the Mediterranean?

The deaths and disappearances of refugees and migrants on the border between the US and Mexico, in European countries, in the Mediterranean and in the Sahara desert rise to thousands and thousands of migrant bodies broken by necropolitics. In addition, security protocols are applied to survivors of shipwrecks, not victims. And all these are not isolated events, they are systematic policies carried out in the heart of Europe. As Arturo Borra affirms 15 / “far from constituting a tragic fatality, the repeated shipwreck of thousands of people in the Mediterranean is as dramatic as it is foreseeable and avoidable”. The successive shipwrecks are the result of policies that prioritize migratory control to the protection of human rights. We are talking about true murderous politics.

On the other hand, real international crimes are taking place in a perverse alliance between the criminal economy and the legal economy, between the mafia economy that washes its money in the legal economy. And leaders of the ecological, feminist, LGTB, peasant and indigenous movements are killed, for leading the defense of their land, against the big hydroelectric projects -300 activists murdered in 2017- 16 /, but it is also eliminated people, simply because they are people that the economic system has too many. People who can not consume or produce impede the capitalist system and become human waste, as Bauman says.

Undoubtedly, the rich have declared war on the poor, a social war that does not pursue a total victory, since it is inserted in a new phase of long duration within the own system of domination. Violence against the poor is not a threat, it is part of the very essence of the capitalist and patriarchal model.

On migrations, the human rights crisis and the heteropatriarchy

That the capitalist system does not need so many people does not mean that it will not continue to count on migrant labor, but that it will be a labor force whose labor rights will be deeply deregulated. In certain sectors such as construction, hospitality, domestic workers, care of people, will continue to rely on migrants, – cheap and precarious labor – to cause a drop in wages and working conditions in a process -induced by the capital and the complicit governments- of confrontation between exploited people and among poor people; between poor nationals and indigent foreigners. A “war” among the poor that favors capitalism and sustains racism and xenophobia. President Trump, at the recent Davos Forum, said that the extended family immigration system must be replaced by one based on its ability to contribute to the US economy.

On the other hand, the system will keep people located in territories of “non-rights”, such as street vending, porters in Frontera Sur or forced prostitution. In Europe, spaces without rights are being created: Centers for the Internment of Foreigners (CIE) -which entail the imprisonment of people who have not committed any crime-, the use of prisons like CIE supposedly on a provisional basis, racist raids, the persecution of manteros and Lateros, deportation flights, expulsions, fences and borders of horror, extraterritoriality of borders, people with expulsion orders, refugee camps, slave labor, abandoned children in the streets, etc. They are legal limbs where Europeans – the internally excluded – can also coincide with people who come from other places. The prisons are a good example of this: in the Spanish State, 120 companies employ thousands of prisoners without any labor rights. Another example is the Spanish women victims of sexist violence who often remain without the corresponding institutional protection, becoming “internal refugees” who roam in their own country, without any right and at the risk of a manifestly patriarchal judicial system, just as says María Naredo. And another example, the two hundred thousand people killed in waiting lists – in the last six years – in the Spanish State for the financial collapse of the law of the Unit.

European governments and community institutions are not only eliminating and suspending rights, they are also reconfiguring those who are subjects of rights and those who fall outside the category of human beings and this causes a new stage in the deregulation of the international human rights system. All this has a deep connection with the colonial and racist logic of different rights for different categories of people.

Miguel Urbán and Gonzalo Donaire 17 / consider that in the EU two conceptions of identity are being constructed, “… or identity understood in an essentialist way, as an ethno-cultural and dehistoric characteristic corresponding to a people, or identity as an attribute civic-political that, nevertheless, is considered an original and exclusive product of the European and national tradition “. All this provokes manifest restrictions on who belongs to the European community, which develops the exclusion of rights of the “non-European national” and opens the door to legal exclusion, underpinning the programmatic bases of xenophobia. We can not forget that racism has been part of Western policies and that these policies regulate the distribution of death and have made it possible, among other reasons, for the repressive functions of the State to be legitimized. What Mbembe calls the long night of the postcolonial African world has been built.

On the other hand, there are refugee camps, which are places to identify, control and expel; fields where women suffer sexual assault, rape or sexual violence by their partners, relatives, neighbors, NGO employees, and government and security forces; they are spaces that are sustained on the border as an imaginary of war. The lines that separate the order of barbarism, the good from the bad and the invisibility, so that the conscience of European citizenship does not see what is being done with human beings, with our equals. The colonies are similar to the borders, since they are inhabited by “savages” and as Mbembe affirms “the colonies can be governed in absolute absence of law and come from the racist denial of any common point between the conqueror and the indigenous.”

From this perspective, the persecution and criminalization of people and organizations that defend the rights of refugees and migrants are increasingly common practices within the European Union. Solidarity is being typified as a crime of illegal trafficking of people and as another link in the chain of networks and traffickers of human beings; an authoritarian delirium as real as it is crazy.

But borders are also mechanisms that serve to select and filter that men and women are functional to the economic model and to the accumulation of capital. Therefore, the inclusion, or better the assimilation, is developed in total continuity with the expulsion of millions of people, since the borders regulate and articulate the relations between capital, labor and political power and establish those who are subjects of rights and who are not.

Patriarchy deepens in the dynamics described. The Welfare State has reduced the very precarious public policies of attention to reproductive work and caring for people. And that bankruptcy falls once again on women. In addition, as Silvia Federicci points out, capitalist patriarchy offers men the body of women as a substitute for dispossession and the loss of power generated by the model. According to this author, in the period of original accumulation, capitalism offered men the bodies of women as compensation for the loss of land and forced women to take care of household chores, that is, to reproduce force of work as a “natural” non-salaried mandate 18 /. The femicides of Juarez, in Mexico City … move in this logic.

On the other hand, we must denounce the sexual violence suffered by women and children in migratory transits by all the men with whom they are on the road: traveling companions, police, mafias, etc., forced marriages, genital ablation, forced prostitution and persecution for sexual orientation and identity.

Transnational corporations and forced displacements

Large European companies have diplomatic, economic, political, legal and media support; in the Spanish case, they have even created their own brand in Spain. Migrants, refugees and asylum seekers, however, the community administration and the authorities of the Member States respond by arresting them with fences, walls and barbed wire, painting their houses and forcing them to wear red bracelets if they want to feed themselves, confining them in ” concentration camps “and expelling them, deporting them, expropriating their assets, criminalizing the help provided by some organizations and people in solidarity, not protecting children who are fleeing from war, hunger, climate change, or LGBT people , nor to women prisoners of all types of sexual violence. It is the legal asymmetry of horror.

Global Corporate Law combines the deregulation of the obligations of transnational corporations with the re-regulation of their rights.In other words, while deregulating the rights of social majorities in all matters susceptible to purchase and sale, the rights of transnational corporations are protected with maximum efficiency. In the case of refugees and migrants, the administrations of the EU and its Member States not only “deregulate” their rights, but they are confined in refugee camps and CIE, they are left to die in the crossing of terror and the international system of human rights is transformed into empty proclamations of content in favor of the resolution of the “humanitarian crisis”. Weak when it comes to controlling the abuses committed by transnational corporations and imposing sanctions on them, the states become strong against men, women, children and fleeing from war and hunger.

In the European Union, today, the rule of law has been replaced by the rule of capital, and the rights and lives of refugees and refugee worth far less than the brand Spain.

Moreover, the responsibility of transnational corporations is inseparable from the responsibility of the parent State, the host State and the rules imposed by the Economic Financial Institutions.

Transnational corporations take advantage of an architecture of impunity, inequality, asymmetry between rights. Transnational protect your rights with a chain of impunity that operates on a global level: treaties and trade agreements and investment provisions, plans and policies of the International Monetary Fund, World Bank and World Trade Organization, exploitation contracts , arbitration courts, ie a very complex system shielding the rights of transnational corporations, making them untouchables. And the questions we are where are the obligations of transnational are ?, who controls ?, proposed by the Spanish government against the violation of rights of IBEX 35 companies ?,They do not have responsibilities in the Rana Plaza de Bangladesh where twelve hundred people died? What responsibility did the textile companies, Mango and El Corte Ingles? Clearly there are partnerships between governments and transnational. And there, the international human rights law can not compete with the right to trade and investment. We have the example of the hard pressure being exerted on the Greek government to pay the debt ignoring the popular will expressed in the referendum, against permissiveness with which he responded to the government and the Hungarian referendum not to accept the paltry fee of refugees assigned.Mango and El Corte Ingles? Clearly there are partnerships between governments and transnational. And there, the international human rights law can not compete with the right to trade and investment. We have the example of the hard pressure being exerted on the Greek government to pay the debt ignoring the popular will expressed in the referendum, against permissiveness with which he responded to the government and the Hungarian referendum not to accept the paltry fee of refugees assigned.Mango and El Corte Ingles? Clearly there are partnerships between governments and transnational. And there, the international human rights law can not compete with the right to trade and investment. We have the example of the hard pressure being exerted on the Greek government to pay the debt ignoring the popular will expressed in the referendum, against permissiveness with which he responded to the government and the Hungarian referendum not to accept the paltry fee of refugees assigned.against permissiveness with which he responded to the government and the Hungarian referendum to not accept the miserable refugee quota assigned.against permissiveness with which he responded to the government and the Hungarian referendum to not accept the miserable refugee quota assigned.

The architecture of impunity is a direct cause of forced displacement of people and subordinating human rights to the rights of transnational corporations.

Corporate Justice for rich and poor

Trade treaties and agreements of investment protection protect TNCs possible “expulsion” of a country. It is a justice for the rich that we could see, for example, when the expropriation of the Argentina subsidiary of Repsol took place in 2012 when the government of Argentina decreed the nationalization of YPF, the oil immediately launched the architecture of impunity: exercised legal actions before national courts, filed suit against Argentina to a court in New York, filed another in Madrid, appealed to the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) arbitration dependent -People World Bank and also it benefited from the pressure at all levels for Spain and the European Union.This is a justice for the rich.

Violations of the rights of refugees and migrants, on the contrary, before which court can be denounced? And how effective would these complaints be? Why does the international human rights system protect them in such a fragile way? How is it possible that the Mexican immigration authorities force thousands of people from Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala to return to their countries without taking into account the risks to their lives and to do so in the most absolute impunity? What judicial authority protects these people? This is justice for the poor.

Military conflicts and wars: Who wins and who loses?

The global wars have among their strategic objectives to force the enemy to submission, whatever the so-called side effects of military action.

In addition, the struggle for control of natural resources still find it essential to ensure the process of capital accumulation. Oil appropriation of the different ranges of minerals, gas, land, water, construction of pipelines, etc. They are important to know the reasons why millions of people fleeing armed conflicts causes. These enclaves have become privileged places of conflict, destruction and death. Obviously we must add other causes such as geostrategic, religious, social, economic, interests of great powers, terrorism, fights against local dictatorships, etc. and you have to keep in mind that depending on the conflict, some causes are much more important than others.But there is a hegemonic idea of ​​domination that is repeated from power structures, armies have to have much more power and financial resources to deal with an uncertain future full of threats. It is the “securitization” as a core value of the capitalist and patriarchal model.

The European Union and member governments must respond to the wars that have caused and assess why has intervened militarily ?, Who has benefited the war ?, Who are your allies ?, etc.

An example. The violation of human rights in Libya is terrifying, as it includes the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe in the preamble of its activity report 2017. Immigrants are being sold as slaves in their markets and lashes and chains are part of their daily lives. However, we must remember that the governments of France, Britain and the US intervened for “humanitarian bombing” in Libya to restore “democracy”. Mafias have today in that country of weapons coming from Saudi Arabia and the major powers after years of conflict leave them in their hands. We have a tremendously harmful trilogy, humanitarian military interventions,decay and destruction of Libya and the subsequent alliance between EU governments and criminal gangs to stop forced displacement. In this direction, the February 2, 2018 Italian Prime Minister and head of the Presidential Council of Libya have signed an agreement to tackle the migration flow between both countries.

In short, it should review two issues, human rights and the rights of peoples have come benefited from armed conflicts, and war-affected are the Kurdish, Palestinian, Syrian, Afghan, Iraqi, Yemeni, Libyan people, Sudanese , etc., who are the real losers of such indiscriminate violence. In addition, the cruelty being welcomed in the countries of the European Union closes the diabolical circle of structural violence.

The other issue we want to emphasize is what we know of military enterprises and banks that finance them? Companies participating in the bombing of death in Syria, Afghanistan, South Sudan, Yemen, Libya, etc. They are the same companies that are taking advantage of business borders and fences and participating in the reconstruction of countries which themselves have destroyed. It is the trade of horror and destruction. Many of these companies are European capital and according to the report Externalization Border (2017: 99-101) the involvement of 13 European companies 19 / collected. Also essential collaboration disclose the financial sector in the arms business through shareholding, export financing, issuance of bonds and notes,investment funds and granting credits and loans to arms companies.

And the security business continues. In January this year, the UK Government will allocate an additional 50 million euros to prevent migrants from crossing the Franco-British border Calais (France) with new fences, closed circuit cameras and detection technology infrared, and the cross-border project has Migrants Files valued at 13.000 million expenditure to curb immigration. 20 / In this context, the aforementioned project emphasizes that in the last fifteen years smuggle migrants and refugees has generated a profit of at least EUR 15,700 million for mafias. Migration policies are imbued with contradictions in their own terms, and are part of a diabolical circle of destruction of human rights, against the commercial profit of security.Military coercion itself has become a privileged object for the market.

Moreover, governments establish partnerships with the companies mentioned as well, the Spanish government exports arms to Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Turkey, Bahrain, etc. fueling the business of war. And besides, global military spending increased by 0.4% over the previous year and represents 2.2% of world GDP. US remains the country with the largest annual military spending according to the report published by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, and President Donald Trump has announced an increase of 9.27% ​​for military budgets US 2018, representing an injection of 54,000 million, the highest growth since the attacks of 11-S 15 years 21 weeks ago /.

The war industry has virtually unlimited power: the Middle East and Africa, arms races in Asia-the region is home to six of the ten largest importers of weapons-, the support of the EU, especially France, UK, Germany -, Russia, Saudi Arabia, etc. and decreased legal and political barriers that once restricted the sale of arms to enemy countries 22 /, are the reasons for business success of such a destructive business. On 7 June 2017 the Commission approved the European Defense Fund, through which seeks to allocate 500 million euros for research and development of military industry, which in 2021 will raise 1.5 billion euros a year. In this direction, the government of Spain is committed to NATO to allocate 1.53% of GDP to defense, 18.470 million euros in 2024, which means double the current budget.

The conclusion is twofold : on the one hand, we demand that international agreements are met and avails itself of the people fleeing war as refugees and, secondly, that responsibilities are assumed by intervening in military conflicts and control the business military industry in all its dimensions.

Development cooperation

Development cooperation should be directed to the fight against poverty and inequality. At present its instrumentalization for the externalization of borders, containment of refugees and migrants and the strengthening of military systems, impacts the very essence of cooperation policies 23 /. The trust fund emergency EU approved by the European Commission at the summit of Valletta in November 2015 Africa is a perfect example of misuse of development cooperation: it consists of a sum of actions where institutional development, cooperation economic, management of migration flows and the diplomatic offensive at all levels intersect with the main objective to control the movement of people. Further,some donors cut their development programs because they use their aid budgets to cover expenses dedicated to refugees 24 /.

The Concord platform has denounced European budgets for border control in countries like Libya and Niger come from resources that should be allocated to development cooperation 25 /.

Conclusion

Discover forced displacement is equal to complete a puzzle. To analyze it in its complexity, it is required to have all the chips placed in their rightful place. You can not remove the pieces and value them regardless of their situation in the whole game. It makes no sense to dwell on the color of a tab, its weight, its contours … and give a value apart from its place in the whole puzzle. With the causes of forced displacement so does, you can not pretend to speak of legality or border security as if it were separate tabs. To understand what is really happening, we need to see the puzzle as a whole and understand that the law is linked to the unlimited accumulation of wealth,the acquisition of large-scale land by transnational corporations, global warming and arms trafficking, and security is no stranger to the violation of human rights of people fleeing poverty and gender violence. When asked by solving what happens in the borders, we can not draw a card and propose magical solutions. Analyze what happens in depth, involves seeing and interpreting the puzzle as a whole and that means priority to the lives of people above the interests of a few, and that compassion for the pain of our peers and denouncing the guilty of such cruelty, merge into a complex puzzle.and security is no stranger to the violation of human rights of people fleeing poverty and gender violence. When asked by solving what happens in the borders, we can not draw a card and propose magical solutions. Analyze what happens in depth, involves seeing and interpreting the puzzle as a whole and that means priority to the lives of people above the interests of a few, and that compassion for the pain of our peers and denouncing the guilty of such cruelty, merge into a complex puzzle.and security is no stranger to the violation of human rights of people fleeing poverty and gender violence. When asked by solving what happens in the borders, we can not draw a card and propose magical solutions. Analyze what happens in depth, involves seeing and interpreting the puzzle as a whole and that means priority to the lives of people above the interests of a few, and that compassion for the pain of our peers and denouncing the guilty of such cruelty, merge into a complex puzzle.It involves seeing and interpreting the puzzle as a whole and that means priority to the lives of people above the interests of a few, and that compassion for the pain of our peers and denouncing the perpetrators of such cruelty, melted in a complex puzzle.It involves seeing and interpreting the puzzle as a whole and that means priority to the lives of people above the interests of a few, and that compassion for the pain of our peers and denouncing the perpetrators of such cruelty, melted in a complex puzzle.

Juan Hernandez Zubizarreta. Professor at the University of the Basque Country and member of the Observatory of Multinationals in Latin America (OMAL)

Notes

1 / Michael Roberts (2017): “The global paradox” without permission http://www.sinpermiso.info/textos/la-paradoja-global-del-capitalismo

2 / Mark Curtis and Tim Jones (2017): ” the world benefits from the wealth of Africa “, ctxt, http: //ctxt.es/es/20170621/Politica/13372/Africa-expolio-riqueza-ayuda-o … and” How the world benefits from the wealth of Africa , “South wind # 154

3 / Martín Andrade (2016):” These are the ten worst countries in the world for workers , ” https://news.vice.com/es/article/los-10-peores -Countries-world-for-work …

4 / Eduardo Azumendi (2018): “new forms of slavery: domestic workers home , ” Kaosenlared, http://kaosenlared.net/las-nuevas-formas-de- slavery-workers-the -…

5 / David Harvey (2004): The new “imperialism” accumulation by dispossession, Library Clacso, http://biblioteca.clacso.edu.ar/clacso/se/20130702120830/harvey.pdf

6 / Gustavo Duch (2014): No let’s swallow. Food sovereignty an alternative to agribusiness, books lynx, Barcelona.

7 / Achille Mbembe (2011): Necropolitics, Melusine, Tenerife

8 / Beatriz de Lucas (2016): “Transnationals in the origin of forced displacement , ” Salmon Undertow, web, http://www.elsalmoncontracorriente.es/?Las -transnacionales-in-the-origin

9 / Lucia Villa (2018): Interview with Vandana Shiva, Public, http: //www.publico.es/sociedad/entrevista-vandana-shiva-pequenos-agricul …

10 / Nick Buxton (20179: “Climate Chaos, humanitarian and new militarisms crisis , ” Viento Sur, No. 157.

11 / Helena Maleno (2017): “The coldness of the Italian Coast Guard is not far from the Spanish border , ” the diario.es, http: //www.eldiario.es/desalambre/Pongamos-nombre-verdugos-fronteras_0_6 … and Rory Carroll (2018), the diario.es, http://www.eldiario.es/theguardian/ border-US-destroy-condemning …

12 / Univisión (2017): “They die of thirst more than 40 migrants in the desert of the Sahara”, http://www.univision.com/noticias/tragedias/mueren-de -sed-mas-de-40-migr …

13 / Montse Martínez (2018): “the UN confirms that there are already dying of cold in Europe refugees , ” the newspaper,http: //www.elperiodico.com/es/internacional/20170113/las-oeneges-alterta …

14 / Pau Coll (2018): “The boat broken women”, La Vanguardia, http: // www. lavanguardia.com/internacional/20180130/44395415606/backway-m …

15 / Arturo Borra (2018): “deaths in the Mediterranean: accounting of the missing , ” Rebellion, http://www.rebelion.org/ noticia.php id = 236563?

16 / Front Line Defenders (2018): “More than three hundred activist were killed in 2017” the diario.es, http://www.eldiario.es/desalambre/activistas-asesinados-Front-Line -Defen …

17 / Urbán Miguel and Gonzalo Donaire (2016): Shoot the refugees. The construction of Fortress Europe, Icaria, Barcelona.

18 / Nuria Alabao (2018): “Mothers and grandmothers silent heroines of the care, CTXT, http: //ctxt.es/es/20180103/Politica/17061/mujeres-cuidados-hogar-capital …

19 / Airbus, Signalis, Finmeccanica / Leonardo, Thales, Indra, Safran / Morpho, Bae Systems, Saab, Siemens, Atos, Inisys, Defendec and Thermoteknix.

20 / Daniele Grasso (2018): “The cost of fortress Europe”, El Confidencial, https://www.elconfidencial.com/amp/mundo/2015-06-18/europa-gasta-13-000- .. .

21 / Strategy Institute (2017): “The ten countries that increase their military budget every year , ” http: //www.institutodeestrategia.com/articulo/internacional/crece-gasto -…

22 / defense industry , a safe business, La Marea, 2016http://www.lamarea.com/2016/02/24/el-floreciente-negocio-de-la-guerra/

23 / Agudo, A. (2017:. “So Europe pays the refugee crisis” El País.

link: http: //internacional.elpais.com/internacional/2017/06/05/actualidad/1496 …

24 / Camp, S. (2017): “the effects of receiving refugees causes in the economy countries that receive them “El País..

Link: http://elpais.com/elpais/2017/06/06/planeta_futuro/1496726188_301754.html

25 / Martin Cúneo (2017):” development aid funds end up funding the Libyan coastguard “El Salto https: //elsaltodiario.com/fronteras/ue-ongd-denuncian-fondos-ayuda-desar …