USA: The Creator & Sustainer of Chechen Terrorism

Boston Terror: Don’t Let the Media Fool You … Again- Climb Up the Chain and Meet the Real Masterminds of Global Terror.

By Sibel Edmonds

Here we go again- Déjà vu. Out of the blue we have a ‘terror event,’ a couple of pop-terrorists, and a new buzz-word nation-Chechnya. There they go again: USA Media tales made-in-government: Muslims, terrorists, fanatics, freedom-haters … this time from another exotic-sounding land-Chechnya.

They are going to tell you about the new frontiers in the so-called Islamic Terror Cells: The Caucasus and Central Asia. They’ve been planning this for a long time. In fact, the plans were in motion as early as the mid-1990s. Since 2002, despite the gag orders and attacks, I have been talking about: Central Asia & the Caucasus. I have been talking about our operations-grooming our very own terrorists in that region. I have been talking about Chechnya. In fact, just recently, I talked and talked about it on record:






The government and its media will give you the tales. They will give you the roller-coaster-like spins. They will not give you what you need to know. Two years ago, we, at Boiling Frogs Post, provided you with the following article-analysis. Please read it: with the recent home-made terror incident and the new media buzz-word ‘Chechnya’, you need to arm yourself with facts.

Here are a few excerpts from my article on US-Chechen Joint Terror Operation published in November 2011:

BFP Exclusive: US-NATO-Chechen Militia Joint Operations Base

The US media may be many awful things, but no one could ever accuse them of not being consistent- at least when it comes to certain subject areas; US-NATO-Chechen joint terrorism operations being one. The censorship of this topic goes to such extremes – where even modified-sanitized-pasteurized versions of related events and facts are nowhere to be found in the US media. Let me list a few globally known and reported facts, then add a few twos and twos and twos together, and see whether you can find any traces of that in the US mainstream media:

Assassinations of Chechen Terrorist Leaders in Turkey

The following was reported by British paper Telegraph in September this year:

Kremlin hit squad ‘assassinate Chechen Islamist in Istanbul’

The triple murder was carried out by a lone gunman in less than thirty seconds using a 9mm pistol fitted with a silencer. It brought the number of Chechens assassinated in the Turkish city in the last four years to at least six. The gunman pumped eleven bullets into the three men in a busy Istanbul street before speeding off in a black getaway car.

One of the murdered men, 33-year-old Berg-Haj Musayev, was said to be close to Doku Umarov, an Islamist terrorist leader who is Russia’s most wanted man. The other two were said to be his bodyguards.

It was Umarov who claimed responsibility for the January suicide bombing of Moscow’s busy Domodedovo airport, an atrocity that left 37 people dead. Musayev’s widow Sehida said she was sure the Russian secret service was behind her husband’s murder, a view echoed by Murat Ozer, head of a Chechen Diaspora group in Istanbul.

I am going to provide you with several cases like this, and go back several years, but for now keep this article in mind, and ask yourself: How did these notorious Chechen terrorist masterminds and leaders end up in Turkey? Why did all these high-level terrorists choose Turkey? How could they be allowed by the Turkish government to operate and carry out their terror operations from Turkey as their HQ-base?

Keep those questions in mind as you proceed to the next case and facts. Now, a bit more on these assassinations from Spiegel:

Russia Hunts Down Chechen Terrorists Abroad

Russian intelligence agents appear to be systematically working off a hit list. When he came into power, Putin, who was president at the time, apparently decided to expand the death zone. “We will pursue the terrorists wherever they go. If we find them in the toilet, we’ll kill them in the outhouse,” the president vowed, and set his agents loose on Chechen rebels and terrorists abroad.

In February 2004, Russian agents with diplomatic passports blew up an SUV carrying Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev, a Chechen rebel commander, in Qatar, where he had been a guest of that country’s emir…

The attacks were carried out in Arab countries, Azerbaidjan in the southern Caucasus and, in particular, Turkey. In September 2008, the Chechen militant Gaji Edilsultanov was murdered in Istanbul in broad daylight.  Three months later, his fellow militant Islam Zhanibekov was killed in an execution-style shooting in front of his wife and children. Russian special-forces units had targeted the Chechen because of his involvement in several terrorist attacks.

What I want you to specifically take with you from this second article is that: 1- The largest concentrations of these active Chechen terrorists are in (in order): Turkey- A NATO member, Azerbaijan (Almost a NATO Member), Germany (a NATO Member), followed by Dubai- one of the closest US Allies in the Arab States, and Qatar-another very close US ally and partner in the Arab states. 2- Amazingly these notorious ‘Islamist’ terrorists are not present in ‘Islamist’ nations designated as terrorist nations by the United States: Iran, Syria. Of course there are no Chechen terrorist groups in North Korea. Please keep this ‘2’ together with the previous one, and we’ll move to the next area.

Chechen Terrorists Linked Closely with Turkey

Do you remember the Moscow Theater hostage Crisis in 2002? If not, you can quickly check it out here.

The following report came out after the investigations and follow up:

Chechen terrorists linked with Turkey: Russia

There were earlier reports that Chechen terrorists had made telephone calls to Turkey, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates during the hostage drama.

According to reports carried by the Itar-Tass on Tuesday, Russian security intelligence said that they had had indisputable proof that the Chechens had received support and encouragement from these three countries.

The head of Russia’s International Military Co-operation Department, General Anatoli Mazurkeviç, is to meet with a European Parliamentarian Council delegation later on Tuesday and complain of what Russia sees as a double standard in west on combating terrorism.

I am sure you have picked up on the commonality shared by the mentioned nations. The time frame: 2002, and the terrorist and terrorist supporting nations happen to be those outside our nation’s designated axis of evil.  No Iraq, Iran or Syria. No Gaddafi-led Libya.

Let’s pause for a second and check out the Chechens’ American friends and advocates, and after that we’ll come back here. The following article appeared in the Guardian UK in 2004:

The Chechens American Friends

In the US, the leading group which pleads the Chechen cause is the American Committee for Peace in Chechnya (ACPC).  The list of the self-styled “distinguished Americans” who are its members is a roll call of the most prominent neoconservatives who so enthusiastically support the “war on terror”.

They include Richard Perle, the notorious Pentagon adviser; Elliott Abrams of Iran-Contra fame; Kenneth Adelman, the former US ambassador to the UN who egged on the invasion of Iraq by predicting it would be “a cakewalk”; Midge Decter, biographer of Donald Rumsfeld and a director of the rightwing Heritage Foundation; Frank Gaffney of the militarist Centre for Security Policy; Bruce Jackson, former US military intelligence officer and one-time vice-president of Lockheed Martin, now president of the US Committee on NATO; Michael Ladeen of the American Enterprise Institute, a former admirer of Italian fascism and now a leading proponent of regime change in Iran; and R James Woolsey, the former CIA director who is one of the leading cheerleaders behind George Bush’s plans to re-model the Muslim world along pro-US lines.

In August, the ACPC welcomed the award of political asylum in the US, and a US-government funded grant, to Ilyas Akhmadov, foreign minister in the opposition Chechen government, and a man Moscow describes as a terrorist. Coming from both political parties, the ACPC members represent the backbone of the US foreign policy establishment, and their views are indeed those of the US administration.

Okay. You should have several twos by now to add together later: Main Chechen terror base and HQ in NATO Member and one of the closest US allies in the Middle East Turkey + Network Extension in Germany (NATO), Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (Two closest US Arab Allies and Pawns) + All the major PNAC –Neoconservative & the New World Order players and operators + the CIA.

Now, let’s head back where we left off with the Russia-Turkey angle, and take a look at a more specific player. Here is an article from 2008:

US-NATO-Chechen Militia Joint Operations Base.


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13 Comments

  1. Alexandra Valiente says:
  2. Jan says:


    Ground Zero Al Qaeda Training Camp in the USA (explore the links)

    Click on the Ultimate Jihad Challenge and scroll down to the Chechnya flame image and click.
    http://web.archive.org/web/20010516224304/http://www.sakina.fsbusiness.co.uk/

    If you click on links in the header in the page that opens, you get more details.

    Chechnya Links – National Endowment for Democracy
    http://www.ned.org/search_results.html?cx=008846551274917761505%3A1i0zdvf5gsi&cof=FORID%3A11&q=+chechnya&sa.x=16&sa.y=14

    1. Andrea Moore says:

      AK and his many aliases can’t plead ignorance when he ran this website for years. The only people connected to the operation that weren’t assassinated were the British intelligence, CIA trainers and AK. Suspicious ya think?

      mathaba.net’s Nazis insinuated Libya was behind terrorism and not just terrorism, but al qaeda terrorism, when Libya and Muammar Gaddafi were the most ardent opponents of al qaeda and took extreme measures to thwart them.

      “SAKINA PERSONNEL ARE UNIQUE IN THE FIELD OF SURVIVAL BECAUSE OF THEIR VAST EXPERIENCE IN THE ELITE SPECIAL FORCES OF THE WORLD – i.e. LIBYAN SPECIAL FORCES”

      The Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya vs Mathaba.net

    2. Warrior Rising says:

      mathaba.net posted a slew of articles consistently aligned with CIA propaganda against Russia and Putin. When I traced one link, “Save Chechnya Film Campaign” I found related sites sponsored by Soros and the Jamestown Foundation.

      http://savechechnya.org/
      http://chechen.org/2013/04/19/tsarnaev-brothers-overt-links-to-jihadism-remain-shaky/
      http://www.waynakh.com/eng/2009/07/each-chechen-must-become-a-part-of-the-resistance/
      http://www.radiomarsho.com/

      There’s this example from a US newspaper they posted painting Russians as monsters “Russian counterstrike: families held hostage in Chechnya” and from WaPo attacking Putin, “Chechnya can and must be mended” which accuses Russia of setting up the exact same scenario NED uses in every country where it staged color revolutions, written by the chairman of the CIA’s Central Asia-Caucasus Institute at Johns Hopkins University;

      “Russian President Vladimir Putin declares that the only acceptable outcome is the one he seeks to effect through a puppet government imposed on the dissident republic through rigged elections.”

      Then from the Guardian, UK, mathaba.net posted, “Russia puts price on Chechen rebels’ heads“. It refers to massive protests against Russian “terrorists” without noting that the protests were staged by USAID – NED agitators.

      West turns a blind eye to the politics of exasperation

      Beslan militants argued before explosion in school

      This should have tipped activists off to the true nature of mathaba.net a decade ago, long before the war against Libya.

      This article from mainstream media confirms that Chechen al qaeda were fighting against the former government in Libya.

      “They have been in Libya. From there they are even believed to move into the disturbed sub-Sahara, the Sahel, stretching from Somalia through to Mali and beyond. They are among the most active and now militarily-accomplished of the new breed of guerrilla and terrorist. They are sure to be among the hard men now battling to overthrow Syria’s President Assad, as Chechens have operated in this part of the world ever since they were expelled during the last years of Tsarist Russia — many thousands going to what is now Jordan, forming a significant part of the governing intelligentsia.”

      http://www.standard.co.uk/news/world/commentary-chechens-play-vital-role-in-al-qaedas-network-8580541.html

      This article goes into detail about the West’s connivance with al qaeda in Chechnya to destabilize Russia.

      Chechen Terrorist Networks Trace Back to the US State Department
      by Brandon Turbeville

      With the latest developments regarding the suspects identified in the Boston Bombing, reports of the alleged perpetrators’ Chechen heritage are being used by the whole of the mainstream media to draw connections between the bombing and Islamic terrorism. Even despite the desire of mainstream magazines like Salon for the bomber(s) to have been white Americans, the narrative being paraded in front of the American collective is currently satisfied with the meme of the Chechen Muslim fundamentalist.

      Indeed, in a recent report by FOX News, entitled “Ties Between Islamic Extremist Groups and Chechnya Well-Documented,” the organization states,

      Reports that the suspects in the Boston bombing are believed to be from the region near Chechnya may have caught some by surprise — rebels in Chechnya are known for their violent and long-running campaign to break away from Russia, but not for exporting terror to America.

      But congressional researchers and foreign policy analysts have long tracked a connection between the Chechnya region and Islamic extremists with Al Qaeda and the Taliban. If the suspects are indeed Chechen, analysts told Fox News they may represent part of a jihadi network which has made its way to American soil.

      The report also clearly states that “The ties between major Islamic extremist groups and Chechnya are well-documented, particularly pertaining to extremists’ support for the separatists in Chechnya.”

      Likewise, it was stated by Michael Wines of the New York Times, in an article published as far back as December 9, 2001, entitled “War on Terror Casts Chechen Conflict in New Light,” that “Chechnya’s guerrillas are indisputably financed by a web of Islamic charities, banks and other organizations that have served as cash conduits for terrorist groups.”

      Wines also writes,

      On one hand, the Wahhabi takeover here, like much of the Chechen war, was clearly propelled by outside support. Residents say the Wahhabis also had ties to a notorious training camp that indoctrinated Chechens and foreigners alike in Islamic militancy and military tactics.

      There are strong indications that the camp and its leader, a guerrilla from the Middle East known as Khattab, have ties to Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda.

      Yet, although the narrative promoted by both FOX News and The New York Times, as well as the vast majority of the other mainstream media outlets revolves around the traditional notion of crafty Arab Muslims hiding in caves and successfully plotting to outsmart one of the most sophisticated police states in the world, as is almost always the case, these outlets are fundamentally missing the most important piece of the puzzle.

      Interestingly enough, this missing puzzle piece was hinted at in 2001 by Michael Wines where he mentions that “the Wahhabi takeover” in Chechnya, “like much of the Chechen war, was clearly propelled by outside support.”

      But what forces are propelling this continued conflict?

      Wines and other mainstream commentators may, of course, suggest that the terrorists are “financed by a web of Islamic charities, banks and other organizations that have served as cash conduits for terrorist groups.”

      However, the true source of funding, training, and arming may prove to be more difficult to fit in to the traditional mainstream narrative surrounding Islamic fundamentalist terrorism.

      Chechen “rebels,” much like their “rebel” cousins in Syria, are, in fact, receiving training, weapons, and financial support via the very networks that so vociferously claim to oppose them – the United States and British governments.

      Indeed, in order to see the direct connection between the U.S. government and Chechen terrorism, one need only look toward the leader of the “Chechen rebels,” the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Chechen Republic-Ichkeria, Ilyas Akhmadov, who resides internationally by bouncing back and forth between the United States and Britain all on the tab of the U.S. State Department ever since 2004.

      Being more willing to report on the treachery of the United States than the American press, the Russian news agency KMNews was quite willing to pick up on the American bankrolling of foreign terrorists. The agency wrote,

      In early August, . . . Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Chechen Republic-Ichkeria, Ilyas Akhmadov received political asylum in the USA. And for his ‘outstanding services,’ Akhmadov received a Reagan-Fascell grant,” including a monthly stipend, medical insurance, and well-equipped office with all necessary support services, including the possibility of meetings with political circles and leading US media . ..”[1]

      KMNews then asked, “What about our partners in the ‘anti-terrorist’ coalition?”

      The agency then went on to cite the official expressions of support by then-President George W. Bush, Condoleezza Rice, and State Department spokesman Richard Boucher in order to acknowledge the seemingly bizarre hypocrisy of these officials as they prosecuted a war OF terror all across the globe.

      KMNews also pointed out that the generous grant money provided to Akhmadov by the Reagan-Fascell Foundation is nothing more than a thinly veiled payment to Akhmadov by the U.S. State Department. This is because the Reagan-Fascell Foundation is actually financed by the U.S. Congress via the budget of the State Department itself.

      KMNews then tellingly explained the motivation behind the funding and support of Chechen terrorist networks. It stated,

      Thus, the conclusion is obvious. Willingly or not, Downing Street and the White House provoked the guerrillas to these latest attacks [Beslan school massacre in 2004]. Willingly or not, Great Britain and the USA have nurtured the separatists with material, information and diplomatic resources. Willingly or not, the policy of London and Washington fostered the current terrorist acts.” “As the ancients said, cui bono? Perhaps we are too hasty with such sweeping accusations against our ‘friends’ and ‘partners’? Is there a motive for the Anglo-American ‘anti-terrorist coalition’ to fan the fires of terror in the North Caucasus?” “Alas, there is a motive. It is no secret, that the West is vitally interested in maintaining instability in the Caucasus. That makes it easier to pump out the fossil fuels, extracted in the Caspian region, and it makes it easier to control Georgia and Azerbaijan, and to exert influence on Armenia. Finally, it makes it easier to drive Russia out of the Caspian and the Caucasus. Divide et impera! – the leaders of the Roman Empire already introduced this simple formula for subjugation.

      Yet Akhmadov was not the only separatist terrorist that was given asylum in the Western Anglo Zone. Akmad Zakayev and Aslan Mashkhadov (given asylum in London, England) were also granted protection by the U.S. and Britain in 2003. Zakayev is designated as the “special representative” of Mashkhadov.

      In addition, it is also widely known within European media, political, and intelligence circles that certain leaders of the Chechen terrorist networks are closely connected to the American CIA, if not agents outright. Shamil Basayev, described as the “brutal Chechen field commander” by Webster Tarpley, happens to be one of those individuals. It should be noted that Basayev was linked to the Beslan school massacre as well.

      Furthermore, as Webster Tarpley writes in his article, “Russians Blast US-UK Sponsorship Of Chechen Terror,”

      As Michel Chossudovsky pointed out some years back, the Chechen leaders Basayev and Al Khattab were trained in the CIA-run camps for Islamic fighters in Afghanistan. In 1999, Putin rode to power on a backlash against Chechen terror which he had in all probability staged himself – thus judoing a long-standing US-UK capability. The key point is that the Russian press is now openly denouncing London and Washington as centers for terrorist control.

      Tarpley continues by stating,

      Around the time of 9/11, Putin had pointed to open recruitment of Chechen terrorists going on in London, telling a German interviewer: “In London, there is a recruitment station for people wanting to join combat in Chechnya. Today — not officially, but effectively in the open — they are talking there about recruiting volunteers to go to Afghanistan.” (Focus — German weekly newsmagazine, September 2001) In addition, it is generally known in well-informed European circles that the leaders of the Chechen rebels were trained by the CIA, and that the Chechens were backed by US-sponsored anti-Russian fighters from Afghanistan. In recent months, US-UK backed Chechens have destroyed two Russian airliners and attacked a Moscow subway station, in addition to the school atrocity.

      Some aspects of Putin’s thinking were further explained by a press interview given by Aslambek Aslakhanov, the Chechen politician who is one of Putin’s official advisors. A dispatch from RIA Novosti reported Aslakhanov’s comments as follows: “The terrorists who seized the school in Beslan, North Ossetia, took their orders from abroad. ‘They were talking with people not from Russia, but from abroad. They were being directed,’ said Aslambek Aslakhanov, advisor to the President of the Russian Federation. ‘It is the desire of our “friends” – in quotation marks — who have probably for more than a decade been carrying out enormous, titanic work, aimed at dismembering Russia. These people have worked very hard, and the fact that the financing comes from there and that they are the puppet masters, is also clear.” Aslakhanov, who was named by the terrorists as one of the people they were going to hold talks with, also told RIA Novosti that the bid for such “talks” was completely phony. He said that the hostage-takers were not Chechens. When he talked to them, by phone, in Chechen, they demanded that he talk Russian, and the ones he spoke with had the accents of other North Caucasus ethnic groups. (RIA Novosti, September 6, 2004)

      On September 7, RIA Novosti reported on the demand of the Russian Foreign Ministry that two leading Chechen figures be extradited from London and Washington to stand trial in Russia. A statement from the Russia Foreign Ministry’s Department of Information and Press indicated that Russia will put the United States and Britain on the spot about extraditing two top Chechen separatist officials, who have been given asylum in Washington and London, respectively. They are Akhmad Zakayev, known as a “special representative” of Aslan Maskhadov (currently enjoying asylum in London), and Ilyas Akhmadov, the “Foreign Minister” of the unrecognized “Chechen Republic-Ichkeria” (now residing in the USA). (RIA Novosti, September 7, 2004)

      Even more than the open harboring of Chechen terrorists, however, is the fact that Western agents have themselves been caught in the act of aiding and actually conducting acts of terror. Indeed, toward the end of 2004, it was reported by RBC that a British agent who was working for a Czech Republic-based NGO was arrested for blowing up a Russian armed personnel carrier. It was also reported that other British agents were caught “instructing Chechen gangs in how to lay mines.”

      Again, as Tarpley writes,

      The RBC commentary goes on to cite the Economist of August 19, which contained what RBC characterizes as a virtual ultimatum to Russia. RBC notes that “the carrying out of such a series of coordinated, highly professional terrorist attacks, would be impossible without the help of qualified ‘specialists’.” RBC notes that at the end of August one such “specialist,” working for an NGO based in the Czech republic, was arrested for blowing up a Russian armed personnel carrier. Also, British “experts” have been found instructing Chechen gangs in how to lay mines. “It cannot be excluded, that also in Beslan, the logistics of the operation were provided by just such ‘specialists’,” notes RBC.

      The RBC editorial concludes: “Apparently, by having recourse to large-scale terrorist actions, the forces behind that terrorism, have now acted directly to force a ‘change’ in the political situation in the Caucasus, propagating interethnic wars into Russia. “The only way to resist this, would be for Moscow to make it known, that we are ready to fight a new war, according to new rules and new methods — not with mythical ‘international terrorists’, who do not and never existed, but with the controllers of the ‘insurgents and freedom fighters’; a war against the geopolitical puppet-masters, who are ready to destroy thousands of Russians for the sake of achieving their new division of the world.” (RBC, September 7, 2004)

      Regardless of the final connections regarding the Boston Bombing, the alleged perpetrators, and the connection to Chechen terrorism, one must always be cognizant of the relevant geopolitical facts in order to avoid being swindled and wholly misinformed by clouded mainstream accounts of narratives that are, themselves, entirely mythical.

      The myth of an independent (of Anglo-American control) and organic al-Qaeda is one that is easily dismantled upon even a small modicum of research and investigation. From the founding of al-Qaeda by Western forces in the 1970s to the use of death squads in Iraq, Libya, and now Syria, it is clear that al-Qaeda is nothing less than a wholly owned subsidiary of the Anglo-American intelligence community. It is, in effect, the CIA Arab Legion.

      If the United States government eventually blames the Boston Bombings on Chechen terrorists, whether legitimately or intentionally by virtue of a false flag, then such a situation is undoubtedly a two-edged sword. If the American people are ever capable of understanding that international Muslim fundamentalist terrorist networks – from the United States, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Libya, or Chechnya – are entirely organized, directed, and controlled by Western Anglo-American powers themselves, it may prove to be the end of the imperialist foreign policy, domestic police state mechanisms, and austerity measures. If the American people, however, continue to bite the bait of terror and fear, there may be no limits to the depths the United States and the rest of the world will sink.

      Notes:[1] Tarpley, Webster Griffin. 9/11 Synthetic Terror: Made In USA. 4th Edition. Progressive Press. 2007. Pp. 428-431.

      1. Habiba says:

        From the Internet archives:

        In 9/11 Synthetic Terror: Made in USA, Webster Tarpley refers to SSS as the UK terror school for patsies and that London is one of the main recruiting grounds for patsies, dupes, fanatics, double agents, and other roustabouts of the terrorist scene.

        A window into the London state-sponsored synthetic terror milieu came in December 2001, when British authorities were forced to arrest and question Mark Yates, a self-styled security expert who ran a firearms training camp in Alabama. Yates was suspected of helping Islamic terrorist patsies from Britain who were to hone their marksmanship skills on American soil before going off to fight for Islamic causes around the globe. Yates, a British bodyguard and firearms trainer who had operations in both the United Kingdom and the United States, allegedly offered “live fire” weapons training in America for aspiring holy warriors. British police thought that Yates was involved on the US end of the “Ultimate Jihad Challenge” training program offered on the London market by the Sakina Security Services company, owned by Suleiman Bilal Zain-ul-abidin. Yates, who was also the operations and training director at the Ground Zero firearms training camp outside Marion, Alabama, denied everything. “Ultimate Jihad Challenge” included instruction in “art of bone breaking,” and learning to “improvise explosive devices.”

        British Moslems would be given the opportunity to squeeze off up to 3,000 rounds at a shooting range in the United States before heading off to fight for Islamic causes around the world. The Sunday Telegraph reported about another military training course, this time at a secret camp near the village of Yetgoch in southern Wales. Young Moslems and others learned how to use Uzi machine guns at the camp, which was run by Trans Global Security International.

        The reports of the Welsh training camp rekindled a debate in Britain over how the UK had become a hotbed for military recruitment by radical Islamic elements. Sheik Omar Bakri Mohammed said in 2000 that between 1,800 and 2,000 British Moslems were going abroad each year for military training. “We find young men in university classes or mosques, invite them for a meal and discuss “ongoing attacks being suffered by Moslems in Chechnya, Palestine or Kashmir,” Bakri Mohammed said. “We … make them understand their duty to support the jihad (holy war) struggle verbally, financially and, if they can, physically in order to liberate their homeland.” Bakri’s al-Muhajiroun group, like al Qaeda, advocated wiping out the world’s 50-plus existing Moslem-majority states and replacing them with a single “khilafah” (caliphate), or Islamic state. (Sunday Telegraph, MSNBC, December 27, 2001)

        The role of London as the leading center of Islamic radicalism has been an open secret for years, but has never been reported by the US controlled corporate media. In the nineteenth century, when Mazzini and Marx operated out of London, the slogan was that “England supports all revolutions but her own.”

        In the post-colonial world, the British have found it to their advantage to encourage violent movements which could be used for destabilizations and assassinations in the former colonies, which their ex-masters did not want to see become strong and effective modern states.

        Between 1995 and 1999, protests were lodged by many countries concerning the willingness of the British government to permit terror groups to operate from British territory. Among the protestors were: Israel, Algeria, Turkey, Libya, Yemen, India, Egypt, France, Peru, Germany, Nigeria, and Russia.

        A number of groups which were cited as terrorist organizations by the US State Department had their headquarters in London. Among them were the Islamic Group of Egypt, led by Zawahiri, who was a known participant in the plot to assassinate Egyptian President Sadat; this was also the group which had murdered foreign tourists at Luxor in an attempt to wreck the Egyptian tourist industry.

        Non-Anglo-Saxon press organs have from time to time pointed up the role of London in worldwide subversion. “The track of … the GIA leader in Paris leads to Great Britain. The British capital has served as logistical and financial base for the terrorists,” wrote Le Figaro on Nov. 3, 1995, in the wake of a murderous terror attack carried out in France. A report by the French National Assembly in October 2001 alleged that London played the key role as clearinghouse for money laundering of criminal and terrorist organizations.

        In the midst of a campaign of destabilization against Egypt in the mid-1990s, the semi-official organ of the Egyptian government pointed out that “Britain has become the number one base in the world for international terrorism.” (Al Ahram, Cairo, September 7, 1996) Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak noted that “… some states, like Britain, give political asylum to terrorists, and these states will pay the price for that.” (Al-Hayat, September 18, 1996)

        By the late 1990s, there were so many Islamic extremists in London that the city had acquired the nickname of “Londonistan.”

        President Putin of Russia saw a direct link between the London Islamic scene and terrorism in his own country. He said in an interview with a German news magazine: “In London, there is a recruitment station for people wanting to join combat in Chechnya. Today — not officially, but effectively in the open — they are talking there about recruiting volunteers to go to Afghanistan.” (Focus, September 2001)

        Brixton Mosque was one of the notorious centers for terrorist recruitment in the heart of London. This was the home base of Zacharias Mousawi, the French citizen put on trial in Alexandria, Va. It was also the home of Richard Reid, the shoe bomber of December 2001. Imam Qureshi of Brixton and others were allowed by the British authorities to preach anti-US sermons to the some 4,000 Moslem inmates in British prisons, and thus to recruit new patsies for the world-wide terror machine. The rival of Brixton Mosque was the equally redoubtable Finsbury Mosque, the home of the Saudi demagogue al Masri, who was finally taken into custody in the spring of 2004.

      2. Jan says:

        WR,

        You say,

        “There’s this example from a US newspaper they posted painting Russians as monsters “Russian counterstrike: families held hostage in Chechnya” and from WaPo attacking Putin, “Chechnya can and must be mended” which accuses Russia of setting up the exact same scenario NED uses in every country where it staged color revolutions, written by the chairman of the CIA’s Central Asia-Caucasus Institute at Johns Hopkins University; “Russian President Vladimir Putin declares that the only acceptable outcome is the one he seeks to effect through a puppet government imposed on the dissident republic through rigged elections.”

        Then from the Guardian, UK, mathaba.net posted, “Russia puts price on Chechen rebels’ heads“. It refers to massive protests against Russian “terrorists” without noting that the protests in were staged by USAID – NED agitators.”

        According to the The American Committee for Peace in the Caucasus website they were founded by Freedom House in 1999.

        Even though they had a well established internet presence for years and anyone could look up who they were and see their connections, mathaba.net still posted their material in 2004.

        Although they would argue that AK (too many aliases to list) won a case against the Telegraph for implicating him in 9-11 because he ran the SSS website (their links on all the SSS web-pages is significant, not incidental) they still continued to support the work of SSS by promoting extremist groups, be they Chechen Al Qaeda or far right Nazis that were engaged in assassinations and destabilizations in anti-imperialist countries.

        Both AK and Frank Etim (aka Zain-ul-abidin) claimed membership in the Libyan World Mathaba. To date, no one from the genuine Libyan World Mathaba or the Libyan Revolutionary Committees has ever supported this myth. On the contrary, they have emphatically insisted there was never a connection.

        The proof is in the contrasting ideology and Libya’s commitment to demolishing the entire Al Qaeda network while the other was invested in supporting the enemies of the Libyan Jamahiriya and global revolutionary governments.

  3. Álvaro d'Escoto says:

    Right Web: Profile: American Committee for Peace in Chechnya (ACPC)

    Formerly called the American Committee for Peace in Chechnya, the American Committee for Peace in the Caucasus (ACPC) is a project of Freedom House that claims to be “dedicated to monitoring developments in the region and providing expert analysis of their implications for security, stability and the human rights situation.”[1]

    ACPC was founded in 1999 by Freedom House, a neoconservative organization that has worked closely with the U.S. government, receiving funds from the National Endowment for Democracy and other U.S. democratization initiatives. ACPC updated its name to include the broader region after conflicts erupted between Russia and other Caucasus enclaves such as Ingushetia, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and North Ossetia.[2]

    ACPC’s activities include organizing public education programs, developing policy recommendations for lawmakers, and collaborating with activists, journalists, and scholars. It also works closely with a range of nongovernmental policy groups and think tanks, including the neoconservative policy outfit the American Enterprise Institute and the right-wing Jamestown Foundation. The committee distributes a weekly email news service and newsletter entitled News of the Week. ACPC’s web site contains a news archive, policy papers relating to the U.S. role in the Caucasus, and academic papers, maps, and photos of the conflict.

    Glen Howard, the president of the Jamestown Foundation, also serves as ACPC’s executive director.[3] Howard previously worked as a military analyst for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), a high-tech defense contractor, and has served as a consultant for the Department of Defense, National Intelligence Council, and “major oil companies operating in Central Asia and the Middle East.”[4]

    The publications of Howard’s two organizations often overlap. For example, the Jamestown Foundation produces North Caucasus Weekly, an ezine that features contributions by ACPC board members.[5] ACPC’s website is typically dominated by reposts from Jamestown. Both groups also work extensively with Soviet defectors and Chechen dissidents.

    ACPC’s board of directors has included both Democratic and Republican elites, including Zbigniew Brzezinski, Alexander M. Haig, Jr., Steven J. Solarz, and Max Kampelman. The committee’s more than one hundred members has also reflected a wide political spectrum, including such figures as Richard Gere, Morton Abramowitz, and the late Geraldine Ferraro. However, membership is overwhelmingly hawkish, and many high-profile neoconservatives, some associated with the Project for the New American Century, have featured on its membership rolls, including Richard Perle, Frank Gaffney, Elliott Abrams, Midge Decter, William Kristol, Michael Ledeen, and James Woolsey.[6]

    ACPC supports the Chechen rebel movement, apparently as a strategy to weaken Russia and establish better U.S. ties in a region of increasing geopolitical value, which has vast, unexploited natural resource reserves including rich oil, gas, and hard mineral deposits.[7]

    ACPC is perhaps the only U.S.-based organization in which national security militarists and neoconservatives openly support an insurgent movement that is not only nationalist but also largely Islamist.[8] Although ACPC notes its concern about human rights violations and issues of self-determination, far more attention appears to be given to simply advancing U.S. geopolitics by weakening Russia and China.[9]

    The Smith Richardson Foundation has been the largest donor to the ACPC, giving sums totaling almost $420,000 to Freedom House from 2002-2004.[10]

    Sources

    [1]American Committee for Peace in the Caucasus, “About ACPC,” http://www.peaceinthecaucasus.org/about.

    [2]American Committee for Peace in the Caucasus, “About ACPC,” http://www.peaceinthecaucasus.org/about.

    [3]The Jamestown Foundation, “Staff: Glen Howard” http://www.jamestown.org/aboutus/staff/.

    [4]The Jamestown Foundation, “Staff: Glen Howard” http://www.jamestown.org/aboutus/staff/.

    [5]The Jamestown Foundation, “North Caucasus Analysis”, http://www.jamestown.org/programs/nca/.

    [6]American Committee for Peace in Chechnya, “Members,” http://web.archive.org/web/20051220135920/http://www.peaceinchechnya.org/about_members.htm.

    [7]The Jamestown Foundation, Chechnya Weekly for March 9, 16, and 23, 2005, http://web.archive.org/web/20070930182502/http://www.jamestown.org/publications_archives.php?publication_id=1.

    [8]John Laughland, “The Chechens’ American Friends,” The Guardian, September 8, 2004, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/sep/08/usa.russia.

    [9]Global Issues, Crisis in Chechnya, http://www.globalissues.org/article/100/crisis-in-chechnya.

    [10]Conservative Transparency,“Smith Richardson Foundation,” http://mediamattersaction.org/transparency/organization/Smith_Richardson_Foundation/grants.

    Freedom House and The American Committee for Peace in the Caucasus

    History Commons: Profile: American Committee for Peace in Chechnya (ACPC)

    1. Alexandra Valiente says:

      Thank you Álvaro.

      Without trial, an opportunity to testify (unable to speak) and without legal representation…

      Boston bombing suspect gets death penalty charge

      …Although Auken frames it as a “class struggle”, this is a battle between the more deeply encroaching police state and the rule of law, human rights and civil liberties in the USA…

      By Bill Van Auken
      23 April 2013

      Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, the 19-year-old surviving suspect in the Boston Marathon bombings, was formally charged Monday with use of and conspiracy to use a weapon of mass destruction resulting in death, a federal offense that carries the death penalty.

      A federal judge was brought to Tsarnaev’s hospital bed along with an assistant US attorney and a public defender for the formal presentation of the charges. Tsarnaev, who suffered multiple wounds before his capture last Friday, remains in serious condition, on a ventilator and under sedation. He is reportedly unable to verbally communicate because of a gunshot wound to the throat.

      With one brother dead and the other wounded so he cannot speak, there is no one to contradict the official story that the two operated alone and without any knowledge of US intelligence agencies.

      The hospital hearing marked the first time since his capture that Tsarnaev, a US citizen, has seen a lawyer. The Obama administration announced its intention not to read him his Miranda rights to remain silent and be represented by an attorney on the pretext of a “public safety” exemption, even though law enforcement officials in Boston assured the public that they were in no further danger. This gave an FBI-CIA interrogation team unfettered access to Tsarnaev, who was reportedly able to respond only by moving his head or writing down answers.

      In his formal statement announcing the charges, Attorney General Eric Holder paid tribute “to the valor of state and local police, the dedication of federal law enforcement and intelligence officials, and the vigilance of members of the public.” John Carlin, the acting assistant attorney general for national security, added, “The events of the past week underscore in stark terms the need for continued vigilance against terrorist threats both at home and abroad.”

      But even as the Justice Department and the FBI were patting each other on the back, a group of lawmakers raised pointed questions as to how and why the FBI failed to prevent the bombing after the older brother, Tamerlan, had been identified to the agency by the Russian government as a terrorist suspect.

      In a letter to FBI Director Robert Mueller and Director of National Intelligence James Clapper, the Republican chairman of the House Homeland Security Committee, Michael McCaul of Texas, and its former chairman, Republican Congressman Peter King of New York, demanded all material related to Tsarnaev’s case, including classified reports. The two wrote:

      “The FBI interviewed Tamerlan Tsarnaev at the request of a foreign liaison service, on the basis of suspicions that Tsarnaev was involved in terrorist activities. Tsarnaev subsequently traveled to and from Russia and posted jihadist materials on his social media. Yet Tsarnaev remained at liberty in this country to conduct the Boston attack, and it took days to publicly identify him as a suspect.”

      In a television interview Sunday, McCaul asked, “If he [Tamerlan] was on the radar and they let him go, if he was on the Russians’ radar, why wasn’t a flag put on him, some sort of customs flag?”

      The FBI has publicly claimed that it interviewed Tamerlan only once, in 2011, but found no evidence that he was of any concern. It also claimed that the Russian government failed to provide any further information substantiating its warning.

      Every aspect of this official story has been called into question in the wake of the Boston bombings.

      The mother of the two brothers has stated in interviews that the FBI maintained continuous contact with her elder son over the course of three to five years. “They were controlling his every step,” she said. She also recounted that FBI agents had told her that “Tamerlan was an extremist leader and they were afraid of him.”

      The Moscow-based correspondent of Newsweek and the Daily Beast, Anna Nemtsova, interviewed a “well-placed security source” in Russia, who said that when Tamerlan visited Dagestan for six months in 2012, Russian security services and police in Dagestan were “watching him closely for five months and three weeks” and had compiled an extensive dossier on him.

      The Tsarnaev family had its roots in neighboring Chechnya, the scene of two bitter separatist wars in the 1990s that gave rise to an armed Islamist movement. Neither the parents nor the two brothers, who grew up largely in the US, had ever lived there.

      NBC News, meanwhile, reported that Tamerlan had been monitored by Russian police agencies as he visited a “known Islamic militant” in a mosque in Dagestan during his six-month visit. It further quoted a local police official as saying that an extensive case file on the 26-year-old had been sent to the FBI, together with a request for information. The FBI reportedly never replied.

      Britain’s Channel 4 News reported on Sunday, quoting the father of the two brothers, that days after the bombings, Tamerlan received a phone call from the FBI accusing him of being responsible for the attack.

      The multiple reports indicating far more extensive contact with Tamerlan Tsarnaev and knowledge of his activities than the FBI has admitted raise a number of questions.

      Why did the FBI effectively ignore the Russian warning, as well as, apparently, a dossier detailing contacts with Islamist elements? Why did it conceal its sustained contact with the 26 year old?

      An attempt to cover up gross incompetence is certainly not excluded. However, a more plausible explanation is that US intelligence agencies had developed plans for using their knowledge about Tamelan’s activities to their own advantage.

      Given its covert support for separatist movements in the Caucasus, it is entirely possible that Washington decided not to interfere with someone who could be viewed as an asset in furthering these movements. The Chechen Islamists have also supplied substantial numbers of fighters for the war for regime-change in Syria, which Washington is backing.

      It is also possible that the FBI could utilize such intelligence to blackmail Tsarnaev into working as its confidential informant in the US itself.

      One side of the Boston Marathon bombings that the corporate media has virtually blacked out is the extraordinary security measures that were in place before any bombing took place. A number of participants have noted that bomb-sniffing dogs were present both at the starting and finish line, as well as police spotters on rooftops, something they had never seen at previous marathons. Indeed, announcements were made at the beginning of the race telling participants not to be concerned and that the extraordinary security was part of “a training exercise.”

      Also blacked out from media coverage is the participation in this “exercise” of a shadowy Blackwater-style security/mercenary outfit by the name of Craft International. Photographs of operatives of this firm, dressed in identical black jackets, combat fatigue pants and desert combat boots, and wearing shirts and caps bearing its logo—a bleeding skull with a target site in its eye socket—have been widely posted on the Internet.

      Photographs of these mercenaries show them wearing large black backpacks that are similar to those that were said to have carried the pressure-cooker explosive devices that blew up at the marathon’s finish line.

      The question arises as to whether the Tsarnaev brothers were the witting or unwitting participants in an exercise that went wrong, or one that was organized by the American state with the aim of producing precisely the results that it did.

      What were those results? The US military and intelligence apparatus was able to utilize an isolated terrorist incident to carry out the most massive deployment of militarized police in the country’s history, subjecting an entire metropolitan area of over one million people to what amounted to martial law.

      Under conditions of mounting social tensions driven by the protracted economic crisis and ever deepening social inequality, such a deployment provides training and experience for use in confronting the future eruption of class struggle.

      http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2013/04/23/bomb-a23.html

  4. Alexandra Valiente says:

    Today it comes to light that the elder brother was recruited and radicalized by the CIA NGO, the Jamestown Foundation, including other interrelated organizations noted in the comments above.

    CIA MO Not the FBI, Contradictions from Dagestan, Recent Shooting Incident in Dagestan, Georgia-NATO-Russia & More

    NGO’s either radicalize youth for violence (ie Al Qaeda) or pacify them through instruction in direct action tactics (CANVAS / Ruckus Society).

    As I stated in 2011 regarding recruitment of youth for US-backed color revolutions,

    “Let me be clear. This is not about improving the future for the youth…

    It is about exploiting the most vulnerable and impressionable segment of the population, utilizing their energy, idealism and angst to further globalist agendas that benefit only the elite. This is ruthless predation at its worst and is utterly unconscionable.”

    George Soros: Imperial Wizard-Double Agent
    Democracy Promotion: America’s New Regime Change Focus
    Snipers and Death Squads: Terror Tactics Of U.S. Soft Power
    Alliance of Youth Movements, Color Revolutions and the Globalist Agenda

    Take a look at some of the recent NATO activity in the region:

    Georgia Offers NATO Baku-Tbilisi-Kars Railway For Afghan War Transit
    Russian Pacific Fleet Naval Force May Dock In Syria Next Month
    NATO Border: Russia To Deploy Fighter Jets, Missiles To Belarus
    Baltics: 5,000 Troops In NATO Article 5 Exercise
    Poland: NATO Escalates Military Role On Belarus, Russia Borders
    NATO Conducts Air Exercise Over Baltics And Scandinavia
    Massive Formation: U.S. Marines Begin Combat Training In Baltics
    Poland: U.S. Military Colony On Russian, Belarusian Borders
    U.S. General Oversees Training Of Georgian Combat Troops

    1. Álvaro d'Escoto says:

      With NATO obstructed in Syria by Russia, reactivating the Chechen campaign is a logical strategy so the imperialists can destroy Syria with impunity.

      Chechnya has a legitimate, peaceful opposition that employs diplomacy to resolve differences with Russia.

      The Islamists are a distinct group that work against Russia and Chechnya. Their agenda is establishment of an Islamic Caliphate in Chechnya and the world at large through violence and the extermination of everyone that refuses to convert to Wahhabism.

      Supporting Chechen Islamists is as destructive to Chechens as supporting al Qaeda in Libya and Syria has been to the people in both nations. Over 100,000 dead in Libya and rising. Over 70,000 dead in Syria to date.

      1. Alexandra Valiente says:

        Thank you Álvaro. Well stated.

        “With NATO obstructed in Syria by Russia, reactivating the Chechen campaign is a logical strategy so the imperialists can destroy Syria with impunity.”

        Essentially, Sibel voices a similar concern in her sixth Gladio B video. Because what happens in Chechnya can have a domino effect, bringing down Syria, Iran, etc., this is something we need to be more informed about.

        To the youth who might consider joining the globalist’s “jihad” training, I would advise they step back because they will be nothing but cannon fodder, dupes and patsies for imperialist wars. They and their families will be used, shamed and betrayed.

        The same advice goes to anyone contemplating joining any NWO NGO direct action training camp because no genuine revolution that benefits the people will ever happen that way.

  5. Jan says:

    Uncle of Tsarnaev brothers worked for USAID and company linked to Halliburton

    Kurt Nimmo

    Ruslan Tsarni.

    Following Zubeidat Tsarnaev’s claim that her son, Tamerlan Tsarnaev, was set-up by the FBI, her brother-in-law, Ruslan Tsarni, was rolled out to engage in damage control and save the official narrative on the Boston bombings.

    Tsarni called his nephews “losers” and insisted that because the brothers had failed to integrate themselves in the United States they were consumed with hatred.

    The establishment media immediately spotlighted “Uncle Ruslan,” as they affectionately called him, and attempted to bury or at least minimize the impact of Zubeidat Tsarnaev’s claim that her sons are patsies.

    “Tsarni’s own emotions have taken a roller-coaster of guilt and anger, he said in an interview, fueled by the family’s failure to recognize that Tamerlan’s interest in Islam over the past six years may have crossed into violent radicalism,” Bloomberg reported on Wednesday.

    Uncle Ruslan, however, isn’t merely a concerned relative. It is said he not only worked for the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in the former Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan, but also did time with Big Sky Energy Corp., a gas and oil corporation with ties to Cheney’s Halliburton, a Pentagon contractor in bed with the CIA.

    As we noted on Wednesday, USAID is an agency used by the U.S. government to operate “humanitarian” NGOs instrumental in running color revolutions in former Soviet states. It collaborates with the Freedom House, the CIA front the National Endowment for Democracy, Soros Foundations, and the CIA’s Ford Foundation to undermine governments in the former Soviet Union, now the Russian Federation.

  6. Admin says:

    Chechen President: Events in Syria foreign campaign to destroy the country

    Jun 15, 2013

     

    Moscow, (SANA)-Chechen President Ramazan Kadyrov affirmed that what is going on in Syria is not jihad, but a campaign plotted by foreign powers to “overthrow the regime, destroy the country and liquidate its armed forces .”

    “It is not a secret that the so-called Syrian opposition is led by foreign special institutions which try to recruit the youths coming from Russia to involve them in fighting in Syria,” President Kadyrov said in a speech to Russian Inter Fax Agency on Saturday.

    He referred to a number of Chechen men which fight in Syria, saying “according to our information, five or six Chechen men were killed in Syria.”

    Kadyrov underlined the importance of clarifying the nature of the so-called ‘Syrian opposition”, and its relation to Islam through mass media.

    He quoted Muslim scholars as saying that there is no feature of jihad in Syria, but a plot to destroy Syria.

    Mazen


    Updated April 1, 2014


    Chechen President: Kassab attackers are following the West’s orders

    Apr 01, 2014

     

    Moscow, (SANA) Chechen President Akhmad Kadyrov expressed strong denunciation of the terrorist groups’ attack on Kassab city on Syria’s northern border with Turkey, saying those who attacked the city are following orders to demolish the Syrian state and weaken the Islamic countries.

    Writing on his Instagram page, Kadyrov said “those who committed this crime have been raised, fed and armed by the West and are carrying out the orders to destroy Syria and debilitate the Islamic countries”.

    He added that the “jihadists” who attacked Kassab “have nothing to do with Islam”.

    Armed terrorist groups launched last week an assault against Kassab city in the coastal province of Lattakia under the cover and support of Erdogan’s government which has facilitated the entry of the gunmen into Lattakia northern countryside.

    H. Said

    West arms militants fighting in Syria – Kadyrov

    Interfax
    April 1, 2014

    GROZNY: The United States and Western countries train and arm terrorists fighting in Syria, Chechen leader Ramzan Kadyrov said.

    “Blood of innocent civilians was shed in Syria yet again. Around 100 people died in the town of Kesab as a result of an attack by militants, who, as the Syrian authorities emphasize, came from Turkey. These were Armenians, native residents of Syria,” Kadyrov posted on his Instagram account.

    “According to the official information, al-Qaeda militants from the so-called Front al-Nusra and Islamic Front groups participated in the attack on Kesab,” Kadyrov said. “I say with responsibility based on knowledge of the situation that these terrorists have nothing in common with Islam! They are not Muslims!” he said.

    “How can they be called Muslims, if they destroy Islamic relics, including the Uwais al-Qarni relic?” the Chechen leader said.

    “These terrorists are raised, armed, and nursed by the West, and trained by special services of NATO countries. They are carrying out the task of causing Syria to collapse and weakening Islamic countries,” Kadyrov said.

    “Where is the democracy of Europe and the U.S.? Why are they silent? Why do they allocate hundreds of millions dollars, weapons and special means to bandits opposed to the legitimate Syrian authorities who are killing women, the elderly and children? How many more thousands of Syrians have to die so that NATO countries will stop supporting terrorists?” Kadyrov said.

    “Amid this background daily statements and threats to introduce sanctions regarding Russia, which supported the results of the Crimean referendum and managed to prevent bloodshed on the peninsula, look simply blasphemous,” he said.

    “The West does not recognize democracy and people’s will, if this will is not in the interest of the U.S., NATO and the European Union,” Kadyrov said.

    Kadyrov said he offered his condolences to the families of those killed in Kesab and other Syrian cities.

    It has been reported that several days ago militants fighting against the Syrian army shot at villages near Kesab at the Syrian-Turkish border, where Armenians mostly reside.

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